This National Education Union (NEU) guidance ​will assist schools in updating Covid-19 risk assessments, which remains a legal requirement set out in DfE guidance Actions for schools during the coronavirus outbreak  and  is for use in conjunction with our joint union advice to reduce the risk of disruption to education. 

This guidance:

  • sets out what legal requirements are in place for conducting risk assessments, what risk assessment involves and what a risk assessment should ‘look like’; and
  • identifies key hazards (defined as things that have the potential to cause harm) which need to be addressed when Covid-19 risk assessments are carried out. For support with the health and safety measures which need to be in place for safe opening see the joint union checklist.

The guidance aims to support:

  • NEU leader members with their role in conducting (with employer support) and implementing their employer’s risk assessment, as part of their responsibility for the day-to-day management of health and safety; and
  • NEU members and reps/health and safety reps who wish to assure themselves, through the consultation process, that their school’s risk assessment meets legal requirements.

How can this risk assessment checklist be used by NEU leader members?

You can use it to help ensure that any advice and templates for risk assessment provided by the employer, and any you undertake in your management role, cover all the necessary areas.

Working through this guidance with union reps and staff will help ensure that your risk assessment is fit for purpose, as well as providing reassurance to your staff that health, safety and wellbeing is the top priority at this time.

How can the risk assessment checklist be used by NEU members and reps/health and safety reps?

It is important to maintain the necessary distinction between the role of the employer and that of the union. It remains your employer’s responsibility to ensure that risk assessments are undertaken and to support leaders and managers in doing so. As a union rep or health and safety rep, it is not your role to undertake a risk assessment for your school or college, nor should you be ‘signing off’ a risk assessment – that remains the employer’s responsibility.

However, those who work in a school or college understand how it operates and good employers will wish to draw upon that knowledge and experience to produce a risk assessment that leads to the safest possible work environment.

Indeed, there is a legal requirement to consult with health and safety reps when drawing up a risk assessment. Furthermore, whether you are a rep or an ordinary NEU member, your employer has a general duty to consult with staff on matters pertaining to health and safety.

It is also important to note that contributing to the risk assessment process in this way, whether as a safety rep or as a member of staff, does not mean that you could be held liable for any deficiencies that may later become apparent. The legal duty rests with the employer.

If you are a NEU safety rep, you are also urged to exercise your right to undertake an inspection of the site with management every time the risk assessment is revised and regularly thereafter as circumstances change. If there is no NEU safety rep, discuss with members whether someone is willing to take on the role. Hundreds of new NEU safety reps have come forward during this crisis and online training is available (contact

Even if there is no NEU rep, it is good practice for a joint inspection of the workplace to take place on a regular basis – the joint union checklist can be used for this purpose by any member of staff.

What are the legal requirements in respect of risk assessments?

Your employer, whether a local authority, trust or governing body, has a legal duty under the Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1999 to ensure that a suitable and sufficient risk assessment is undertaken in relation to the risks of operating during the continuing Covid-19 pandemic. This is a practical not a paper exercise. It is about identifying hazards (what can go wrong) in the workplace, assessing the risk of harm arising, and taking suitable preventative measures. The bottom line is that if a risk assessment identifies an activity/ process as being too much of a risk, that activity should not happen, even if control measures are put in place. It is important to focus on the worst-case scenario. It is also important for leaders to check whether the Covid-19 situation has any implications for insurance arrangements.

Risk assessments must be tailored to each individual workplace – there is no such thing as a ‘one-size-fits-all’ risk assessment, so simply adopting a model is not an option. Risk assessment is a dynamic process and needs to be kept under regular review, for example when circumstances change and additional hazards become apparent.

Health and safety legislation requires employers to protect the health and safety of employees but also others such as pupils, visitors, agency staff and contractors. The Health and Safety Executive (HSE), which enforces health and safety law in the UK has published guidance including a risk assessment template which may be useful here.

What should a risk assessment look like?

There is no single recommended format. Here are some points to check for.

Date, author and review

  • Is it clear who has carried out the assessment, when it was carried out and in what circumstances it will be reviewed (for example when circumstances change, such as the emergence of the Omicron variant, or if it becomes apparent that there are issues that have been overlooked)?

Competent person

  • Has it been undertaken by a competent person?

This is a legal requirement. A competent person is defined by the HSE as someone with the necessary skills, knowledge and experience to undertake the role. (If you are unsure that the person/people who have undertaken the risk assessment meet this requirement, ask how they meet the criteria.)

Identification of Covid-19 hazards

  • Does the risk assessment identify the things/ situations/behaviours/processes that may cause harm in terms of the spread of Covid-19?

Examples are listed below.

Risk Evaluation

  • Is there an evaluation of the risk, ie the likelihood of harm arising, in order to determine the level of risk?

If a risk assessment describes the risk ascribed to specific matters, as ‘low’ or ‘moderate’ without an indication of how this was arrived at, this is not acceptable and the assessor should be challenged on how they reached this conclusion.

Risk assessments should use the formula of LIKELIHOOD x SEVERITY = RISK.

Some risk assessment calculations are expressed on the basis of the likelihood of something occurring categorised as low, medium or high, with the same categorisation for the severity of the consequences. Another method of doing this is to rate the likelihood or probability of an event occurring on a scale of one to five with one being extremely unlikely and five being almost certain and to rate the severity, or consequences, of the event using the same scale with one being negligible ill health and five being a fatality. The higher the resulting number the less acceptable the level of risk and the greater the mitigation measures required.

Risk control

Measures must be in place to either eliminate the hazard (which is not possible in the case of Covid-19) or control/reduce the risk of harm so that the environment is as safe as it can be.

  • Is it clear what these are, who will be responsible for ensuring that they are in place and when they will be reviewed?

Examples of Covid-19 hazards to be assessed and controlled in the risk assessment

This is not an exhaustive list and may not identify all the possible Covid-19 hazards in your particular school or college.


  • Is it sufficient to address the increased transmission risk of Omicron variant? 

See joint union guidance and Sage guidance and the NEU guide to using CO2 monitors.

Hygiene and cleaning

  • Does the assessment fully cover hygiene and cleaning measures, including measures which will be in place for daily overnight cleaning and for cleaning during the day?


  • Do risk control measures include provision of PPE to staff at greater risk of airborne contamination due to their involvement with particular pupils?
  • Does it consider adequate and appropriate PPE for cleaning staff, for visitors working closely with pupils and for emergency situations?
  • Does it cover use of face coverings by staff and students.  See Coronavirus: face masks and PPE in schools and colleges | NEU

Protection for vulnerable groups of staff

The NEU expects employers to separately carry out individual risk assessments for individual staff members in high risk or vulnerable groups.

  • Does the risk assessment address working arrangements for ​staff who are immunosuppressed, those staff previously defined as clinically extremely vulnerable and pregnant staff? Vulnerable and at risk workers guidance.

Staffing levels

  • Does the risk assessment set out how safe staffing levels will be maintained in cases of outbreaks?

The needs of students

  • Does the risk assessment address the needs of particular groups, such as students with SEND, looked after children, bereaved students or those who may be particularly anxious or worried?

 Suspected cases during the working day

  • Does the risk assessment set out procedures for dealing with suspected cases, including isolating cases, informing parents and ensuring safe collection of students and appropriate cleaning, and measures to ensure all staff understand what to do if this happens?

Live streaming of lessons

  • In the event that live streaming is needed for pupils at home, does the risk assessment make clear how the safety and security of staff during live streaming will be ensured?

First aid hazards

  • Does the risk assessment cover first aid provision and the need for PPE for first aiders?

Communication with parents

  • Does the risk assessment address the issue of communication with parents on matters such as student safety, parental presence, and communication with school staff?
  • Does it cover telling parents what to do if their child develops Covid-19 symptoms or tests positive?

Communication and liaison with the local authority and the local director of public health

  • Does the risk assessment set out clear measures for school leaders and staff to communicate concerns with the local authority/employer and the director of public health?
  • Contact details for both should be obtained and the procedures written into the assessment in case of an outbreak.

Home working for staff

  • Does the risk assessment consider the issue of safe home working for those who might need to work from home?

Mental health for students and staff

  • Does the risk assessment consider the mental health and wellbeing of students and the support needed to support them in school while the effects of the pandemic are still being felt?
  • Does the risk assessment consider the mental health and wellbeing of staff, including by identifying staff members more at risk and by applying measures to ensure a reasonable work-life balance for all?

If you think your school risk assessment is adequate

  • It is not your responsibility to sign it off, but it will be helpful for your head teacher to know that you are broadly supportive of the measures set out.
  • Continue to monitor its implementation and engage as regularly as necessary with school leaders.
  • All staff should be encouraged to flag up issues not previously considered that are impacting upon health and safety. Risk assessment is a dynamic process.

If you think your school risk assessment is inadequate

  • Seek to remedy the deficiencies through discussion with your head teacher and point out areas that are either not covered at all, or where you think the right preventative measures aren’t in place. Make any practical suggestions that you see fit.
  • If you can share a better example that is being used in a nearby school with similar risk factors, then try this approach.
  • If you remain concerned and your head teacher will still not engage in meaningful discussions, then contact your district/branch secretary who will seek to resolve the issue.
  • Where the matter remains unresolved contact your regional/Wales Office.

Further guidance